Monthly Summary - October 2014

   So often a change of month heralds a change in the weather and so after the driest September on record in Cumbria, October was just the opposite and the fourth October in a row to exceed the 100mm mark.

   Whilst here at Maulds Meaburn October last year (2013) may have been both warmer and wetter than this year, a final rainfall total of 189.4 mm falling on 28 days saw low pressure in the ascendancy in a typically disturbed month. Indeed from the 13th measurable rain (at least 0.2 mm) was recorded on every day as the Atlantic westerlies became more dominant. Under cloudy skies direct sunshine was at a premium, but then this allowed for just one air frost and overall October was as poor a month as September had been good.

   MSLP of 1007.9 Mb was -3.0 Mb below average in a typically south-westerly flow with a steady stream of depressions arriving off the Atlantic and with high pressure limited to just the three separate days.

   Overall a mean minimum of 7.26°c and a mean maximum of 13.72°c saw the temperature some 1.4°c above the 1981-2010 average, making it the warmest October since only 2013. The highest maximum temperature recorded was 18.6°c (31st), the lowest minimum -1.0°c (7th).

   It was the wettest October since only last year as well and here at Maulds Meaburn was 154.4% of average for 2007-13 and locally it was typically 150-160% of average around the various sites. At Newton Rigg (168.6 mm - Met' Office) in a series back to 1914, it was the 7th wettest October (1 year of incomplete data) albeit the wettest since 1998.

   Figures from the Environment Agency’s rainfall sites were, (figure in brackets being the monthly average for 1961-90)   ‘Data kindly provided by the Hydrometry and Telemetry team of the Environment Agency (Penrith)’:

   Kirkby Thore 108.4 mm (65.8 mm)

   Brothers Water 444.8 mm (276 mm)

   Nunwick Hall 127.4 mm (85.1 mm) and

   551.6 mm at Seathwaite Farm (Borrowdale - 364 mm).


  1st    Cold fronts connected to low pressure (LP) in the Arctic moved west-east over the UK on the 1st giving a fresher feel and with a little rain that mainly fell in the early hours.


  2nd    Behind the fronts of the 1st high pressure (HP) built from the southwest extending a strong ridge over the UK and the day was perfectly sunny.


  3rd - 15th    An area of deep LP over Iceland saw its associated frontal system shunt the HP away on the 3rd with the introduction of slightly colder air and a day of light rain. That rain became very heavy overnight as a cold front swept over depositing 34.1 mm (with much higher totals in the north and west of Cumbria), turning showery behind but with some sunny intervals in the afternoon, but feeling chilly at 13.1°c.

   A weak ridge of HP from Biscay built and collapsed on the 5th as LP approached from the Atlantic, but at least it gave some brighter moments.

   Rain overnight into the 6th continued through the day as the double centred area of LP pushed a series of fronts over the UK. That LP would be very slow moving and became semi-static over the UK and showers and some longer spells of rain were frequent. Despite the dominance of the LP, the 7th started with the first air frost of the season, -1.0°c and which was the month's coldest temperature, due to being within a slack area of the LP.

   The centre of that LP trundled through Cumbria on the 9th with trough lines circulating within the LP maintaining the showery theme and which also gave some lightning overnight 8-9th.

   Whilst the LP was still dominant the pressure gradient slackened on the 10th and we saw a few sunny intervals with the 12th enjoying a sunny day and which was also quite mild at 14.5°c.

   LP to the south east of the UK initially moving north, then east, saw the 13-15th affected by a cool north-easterly wind with temperatures hovering around the 11.0°c. Overcast, cloudy skies resulted but rainfall was negligible.


  16th - 20th    Still LP would dominate with a new system in the Atlantic taking charge. This LP whilst not unusual for the time of year and which was otherwise unnotable, did extend across the whole breadth of the Atlantic. Again it was slowly moving and would track to the north of the UK before finally petering out.

   However, there followed a few wet days with 14.5 mm (17th) and 18.9 mm (18th) which mainly fell overnight with the days tending to be showery. It also introduced a milder southerly flow from the 17th, which saw the temperature rise to 17.3°c.


  21st    Ex hurricane 'Gonzalo' had been racing across the Atlantic, reaching the UK late on the 20th and passing over during the 21st. However, it was a bit of a non event, giving 19.2 mm of rain, once again mainly overnight and which was heavy at times with winds gusting to 49 Mph. It was however probably more notable for the fact that the temperature dropped slightly in a W-NW'ly wind behind the systems fronts and at 9.6°c we had our first sub 10°c of the season.


  22nd - 27th    With HP to our south a brisk westerly flow blowing over the top of that HP typified the next few days. Generally cloudy with spells of rain that were brought on a series of fronts with limited brightness, especially later in the period when a long waving front that brought excessive rain to northwest Scotland gave us dull overcast skies and the 26th (9.8 mm) and 27th (7.4 mm) were poor days.


  28th    The waving (cold) front that had been affecting Scotland now moved southeast on the 28th and which from 13-1700 Hrs gave a spell of very heavy rain, totalling 20.8 mm. In a 5 minute spell between 1435-1440 Hrs with the passage of the front overhead, the wind shifted from south-west to north-west and with a subsequent dramatic rise in pressure.

   Whilst the rain initially continued, the temperature began to fall and with clearing skies following the rain, a chilly night followed.


  29th    HP west of the UK now moved east across the UK behind the waving front of the 28th and the temperature fell to 0.0°c in the early hours. A better day followed and we finally got to see some sun, but due to the presence of high cloud that sun was watery at best.

   After dark the temperature started to fall away, but soon recovered with an increase in cloud cover ahead of the next weather system.


  30th - 31st    The waving front from the 28th that had cleared south east now moved back to the north bringing with it a murky and wet day. Then a new area of LP arrived off the Atlantic late on the 31st but which also drew up a very mild southerly flow and which resulted in the month's highest temperature of 18.6°c (65.5°f).


   Rainfall totalled 189.4 mm for the month, with rain recorded on 28 days of which 22 were 'Wet days' (1.0mm +).

   The Mean Temperature for the month was 10.49°c      --      The Mean Max' was   13.72°c     --      The Mean Min'   7.26°c.

   We had 1 Air Frost in the month (year 13)                  --      Grass frosts totalled 7 (year 56).

   The 1 foot soil temp ranged from a low of 10.6°c on the 13-14th        to      a high of 14.0°c on the 1st     --      with a monthly mean of 11.7°c

   The 1 meter soil temp ranged from a low of 11.5°c on the 30th-31st     to      a high of 13.4°c on the 1st - 2nd     --     with a monthly mean of 12.2°c



   * October 2014 rainfall was 154.4% of the October average for 2007 - 2013

   * October 2014 was 0.91°c warmer than the October average for 2009 - 2013 and 1.4°c warmer than the local long term average 1981-2010

 * The 3 month mean for August/September/October 2014 is                    TEMP'    12.46°c         --          RAIN    359.3 mm

* August/September/October 2013 was TEMP'    12.79°c -- RAIN    383.2 mm

* August/September/October 2012 was TEMP'    11.20°c -- RAIN    387.9 mm

* August/September/October 2011 was TEMP'    12.44°c -- RAIN    347.5 mm

* August/September/October 2010 was TEMP'    11.60°c -- RAIN    234.1 mm

* August/September/October 2009 was TEMP'    12.33°c -- RAIN    203.6 mm

* August/September/October 2008 was     -- RAIN    481.3 mm

* August/September/October 2007 was     -- RAIN    196.9 mm


* 2014 To Date TEMP    10.38°c -- RAIN   1159.4 mm

* 2013 Jan - October TEMP'     9.17°c -- RAIN    896.8 mm

* 2012 Jan - October TEMP'     9.08°c -- RAIN    989.2 mm

* 2011 Jan - October TEMP'     9.75°c -- RAIN   1016.4 mm

* 2010 Jan - October TEMP'     8.73°c -- RAIN    550.5 mm

* 2009 Jan - October TEMP'     9.75°c -- RAIN    854.3 mm

* 2008 Jan - October TEMP'     -- RAIN   1205.0 mm


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   © Darren Rogers 2014

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